One Gadgets and Malloc Hook
Quick shells and pointers
A one_gadget is simply an execve("/bin/sh") command that is present in gLIBC, and this can be a quick win with GOT overwrites - next time the function is called, the one_gadget is executed and the shell is popped.
__malloc_hook is a feature in C. The Official GNU site defines __malloc_hook as:
The value of this variable is a pointer to the function that malloc uses whenever it is called.
To summarise, when you call malloc() the function __malloc_hook points to also gets called - so if we can overwrite this with, say, a one_gadget, and somehow trigger a call to malloc(), we can get an easy shell.

Finding One_Gadgets

Luckily there is a tool written in Ruby called one_gadget. To install it, run:
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gem install one_gadget
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And then you can simply run
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one_gadget libc
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For most one_gadgets, certain criteria have to be met. This means they won't all work - in fact, none of them may work.

Triggering malloc()

Wait a sec - isn't malloc() a heap function? How will we use it on the stack? Well, you can actually trigger malloc by calling printf("%10000$c") (this allocates too many bytes for the stack, forcing libc to allocate the space on the heap instead). So, if you have a format string vulnerability, calling malloc is trivial.

Practise

This is a hard technique to give you practise on, due to the fact that your libc version may not even have working one_gadgets. As such, feel free to play around with the GOT overwrite binary and see if you can get a one_gadget working.
Remember, the value given by the one_gadget tool needs to be added to libc base as it's just an offset.
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