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Reverse Engineering ARM

Just a ragged collection of notes before I do anything proper - do not take this as gospel! I am doing ARM reversing on my M1 MacBook for fun...
ARM works a bit differently to intel x86 architecture in the way it uses registers and how instructions are formed.

Registers

  • SP - Stack Pointer (same as ESP - points to top of the stack)
  • x29 - the Frame Pointer, FP, points to the base of the current functions stack frame (similar to EBP)
  • x30 - the Link Register, LR, which stores the return address of a function (the return pointer)
  • PC - the Program Counter (aka Instruction Pointer) pointing to the next
The calling convention in ARM works similarly to x86:
// drop down SP
sub sp, sp, 0x20
// Save FP and LR to the stack
stp x29, x30, [var_10h]
// Set up a new stack frame by updating x29 to SP+0x10
add x29, sp, 0x10
// ... function execution ...
// Restore FP and LR
ldp X29, X30, [SP], [var_10h]
// Return
ret
Even though it does roughly the same stuff, there are a few differences between x86 and ARM64.
Firstly, a lot of instructions take 3 parameters now:
sub sp, sp, 0x20
The first parameter here (as well as for other functions such as add) is the register to store the result in. In x86, we assume that the first register that we are adding also stores the result, but ARM makes it explicit.
The stp instruction has no direct x86 equivalent (as far as I am aware!). Essentially, the first two parameters provide registers and the third parameter tells it where in. memory to save the values. For example, the following instruction stores x29 and x30 to memory location var_10h:
stp x29, x30, [var_10h]
I'm not really sure what var_10h refers to - Cutter says var_10h @ stack - 0x10 but I don't know exactly what it uses as a reference point - todo moment...
Finally, the ret instruction is executed. ret transfers the value in x30 (LR) to PC to return execution to the next instruction after the call to the function.