Return-Oriented Programming
Bypassing NX
The basis of ROP is chaining together small chunks of code already present within the binary itself in such a way to do what you wish. This often involves passing parameters to functions already present within libc, such as system - if you can find the location of a command, such as cat flag.txt, and then pass it as a parameter to system, it will execute that command and return the output. A more dangerous command is /bin/sh, which when run by system gives the attacker a shell much like the shellcode we used did.
Doing this, however, is not as simple as it may seem at first. To be able to properly call functions, we first have to understand how to pass parameters to them.

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